Bouncing

When the flash is illuminating a small area, or when you're taking a picture very close-up, the flash can create strong shadows or light the subject unevenly. That's where bouncing comes in. Aiming the flash towards a white wall or ceiling bounces the light off the surface, creating softer lighting of the subject. Avoid wooden/textured surfaces or different colours when choosing an environment because they'll cast unnatural shades or colours on the subject. Just opt for a plain, smooth white surface.

Why does the picture look a bit flat? Here the lens and flash head are close together, shining a hard light on the subject that reflects off the face and table. The bounce technique would lift this picture and avoid the shadows you can see.

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